# How to Generate Stable Starting Values¶

Applying numerical algorithms and methods, the starting value of a variable is the value used for the first iteration. With more complex TESPy models it can happen that the simulation does not converge easily due to a combination of “bad” starting values. The solver is especially vulnerable if the specified parameters trigger complex equations with respect to the primary variables.

The primary variables of TESPy are mass flow, pressure, enthalpy and fluid composition. If such a value is directly specified by the user, the solver has a solution for this value before starting the first iteration. Therefore, specifying a set of parameters largely including primary variables will improve the convergence significantly. Based on the converged solution of a initial simulation, it is then possible to adjust the parameters, for example, unsetting pressure values and specifying efficiencies instead.

Here we provide a short tutorial for you to better understand, how this process could look like at the example of a subcritical heat pump with different working fluids.

Note

If the heat pump operates in trans- or supercritical range, some modifications have to be made on this setup. We plan to include respective examples here in the future.

You can download the full code of this example here:
`starting_values.py`

## Topology of the heat pump¶

Following the first tutorial a slightly different topology for a heat pump with internal heat exchangers is considered instead of dumping the heat to the ambient. You can see the plant topology in the figure below.

The system consists of a consumer system, a valve, an evaporator system, a compressor and additionally an internal heat exchanger. In order to simulate this heat pump, the TESPy model has to be built up. First, the network has to be initialized, and the refrigerants used have to be specified. This example shows how to make the heat pump model work with a variety of working fluids with water on both the heat source and heat sink side of the system.

## Running into errors¶

As always, we start by importing the necessary TESPy classes.

```
from tespy.networks import Network
from tespy.components import (
Condenser, Compressor, CycleCloser, HeatExchanger,
SimpleHeatExchanger, Pump, Sink, Source, Valve
)
from tespy.connections import Connection, Bus
```

Then, we can build the network by defining components and connections. The working fluid will be set with the variable wf, “NH3” is used in the first setup. This way, we will be able to change the working fluid in a flexible way.

##
Click to expand to code section

```
wf = "NH3"
# network
nw = Network(T_unit="C", p_unit="bar", h_unit="kJ / kg", m_unit="kg / s")
# components
cycle_closer = CycleCloser("Refrigerant Cycle Closer")
# heat source
heatsource_feedflow = Source("Heat Source Feed Flow")
heatsource_pump = Pump("Heat Source Recirculation Pump")
heatsource_evaporator = HeatExchanger("Heat Source Evaporator")
heatsource_backflow = Sink("Heat Source Back Flow")
# compression
compressor = Compressor("Compressor")
# heat sink
cons_pump = Pump("Heat Sink Recirculation Pump")
condenser = Condenser("Heat Sink Condenser")
cons_heatsink = SimpleHeatExchanger("Heat Consumer")
cons_cycle_closer = CycleCloser("Consumer Feed Flow")
# internal heat exchange
int_heatex = HeatExchanger("Internal Heat Exchanger")
# expansion
valve = Valve("Expansion Valve")
# connections
# main cycle
c0 = Connection(cycle_closer, "out1", heatsource_evaporator, "in2", label="0")
c1 = Connection(heatsource_evaporator, "out2", int_heatex, "in2", label="1")
c2 = Connection(int_heatex, "out2", compressor, "in1", label="2")
c3 = Connection(compressor, "out1", condenser, "in1", label="3")
c4 = Connection(condenser, "out1", int_heatex, "in1", label="4")
c5 = Connection(int_heatex, "out1", valve, "in1", label="5")
c6 = Connection(valve, "out1", cycle_closer, "in1", label="6")
nw.add_conns(c0, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6)
# heat source
c11 = Connection(heatsource_feedflow, "out1", heatsource_pump, "in1", label="11")
c12 = Connection(heatsource_pump, "out1", heatsource_evaporator, "in1", label="12")
c13 = Connection(heatsource_evaporator, "out1", heatsource_backflow, "in1", label="13")
nw.add_conns(c11, c12, c13)
# heat sink
c21 = Connection(cons_cycle_closer, "out1", cons_pump, "in1", label="21")
c22 = Connection(cons_pump, "out1", condenser, "in2", label="22")
c23 = Connection(condenser, "out2", cons_heatsink, "in1", label="23")
c24 = Connection(cons_heatsink, "out1", cons_cycle_closer, "in1", label="24")
nw.add_conns(c21, c22, c23, c24)
```

After setting up the topology, the system’s parameters should be set in the following way:

Heat sink temperature levels (T at 23 and 24)

Heat source temperature levels (T at 11 and 13)

Degree of overheating after the internal heat exchanger (Td_bp at 2)

Pinch point temperature difference at the evaporator (ttd_l) to derive evaporation pressure

Temperature difference at the condenser (ttd_u) to derive condensation pressure

Saturated gaseous state of the working fluid (x=1) after leaving the evaporator

Efficiencies of pumps and the compressor (eta_s)

Pressure losses in all heat exchangers (pr1, pr2, pr)

Consumer heat demand (Q)

##
Click to expand to code section

```
# parametrization connections
# set feedflow and backflow temperature of heat source and consumer
T_hs_bf = 10
T_hs_ff = 15
T_cons_bf = 50
T_cons_ff = 90
# consumer cycle
c23.set_attr(T=T_cons_ff, p=10, fluid={"water": 1})
c24.set_attr(T=T_cons_bf)
# heat source cycle
c11.set_attr(T=T_hs_ff, p=1, fluid={"water": 1})
c13.set_attr(T=T_hs_bf, p=1)
# evaporation to fully saturated gas
c1.set_attr(x=1, fluid={wf: 1})
# degree of overheating after internal heat exchanger (evaporation side)
c2.set_attr(Td_bp=10)
# parametrization components
# isentropic efficiency
cons_pump.set_attr(eta_s=0.8)
heatsource_pump.set_attr(eta_s=0.8)
compressor.set_attr(eta_s=0.85)
# pressure ratios
condenser.set_attr(pr1=0.98, pr2=0.98)
heatsource_evaporator.set_attr(pr1=0.98, pr2=0.98)
cons_heatsink.set_attr(pr=0.99)
int_heatex.set_attr(pr1=0.98, pr2=0.98)
# temperature differences
heatsource_evaporator.set_attr(ttd_l=5)
condenser.set_attr(ttd_u=5)
# consumer heat demand
cons_heatsink.set_attr(Q=-1e6)
try:
nw.solve("design")
except ValueError as e:
print(e)
nw._reset_topology_reduction_specifications()
```

The system should be well defined with the parameter settings, however no solution can be found. We might run in some error, like

Error

```
ERROR:root:Singularity in jacobian matrix, calculation aborted! Make
sure your network does not have any linear dependencies in the
parametrisation. Other reasons might be
-> given temperature with given pressure in two phase region, try
setting enthalpy instead or provide accurate starting value for
pressure.
-> given logarithmic temperature differences or kA-values for heat
exchangers,
-> support better starting values.
-> bad starting value for fuel mass flow of combustion chamber, provide
small (near to zero, but not zero) starting value.
```

or simply not making progress in the convergence

Error

```
WARNING:root:The solver does not seem to make any progress, aborting
calculation. Residual value is 7.43e+05. This frequently happens, if
the solver pushes the fluid properties out of their feasible range.
```

## Fixing the errors¶

To generate good starting values for the simulation, it is recommended to set pressure and enthalpy values instead of temperature differences. In this example, fixed points can be identified with the help of the logph diagram which you can see in the figure below.

A rough estimation of the evaporation and condensation pressure can be obtained and will be used to replace the temperature differences at the evaporator and the condenser for the starting value generator. After condensation, the working fluid is in saturated liquid state. We can retrieve the condensation pressure corresponding to a temperature slightly below the heat sink temperature by using the CoolProp PropsSI interface with the respective inputs. The same step can be carried out on the heat source side. For the internal heat exchanger, an enthalpy value is specified instead of the temperature difference to the boiling point as well. It is important to note that the PropertySI function (PropsSI) is used with SI units, which differ from the units defined in the network.

The temperature difference values are unset and pressure and enthalpy values are set instead.

```
import CoolProp.CoolProp as CP
# evaporation point
p_eva = CP.PropsSI("P", "Q", 1, "T", T_hs_bf - 5 + 273.15, wf) * 1e-5
c1.set_attr(p=p_eva)
heatsource_evaporator.set_attr(ttd_l=None)
# condensation point
p_cond = CP.PropsSI("P", "Q", 0, "T", T_cons_ff + 5 + 273.15, wf) * 1e-5
c4.set_attr(p=p_cond)
condenser.set_attr(ttd_u=None)
# internal heat exchanger to compressor enthalpy
h_evap = CP.PropsSI("H", "Q", 1, "T", T_hs_bf - 5 + 273.15, wf) * 1e-3
c2.set_attr(Td_bp=None, h=h_evap * 1.01)
# solve the network again
nw.solve("design")
```

The model was solved successfully and has stored the starting values for any follow-up. Therefore, we can undo our recent changes and restart the simulation. For example, the COP is then calculated.

```
# evaporation point
c1.set_attr(p=None)
heatsource_evaporator.set_attr(ttd_l=5)
# condensation point
c4.set_attr(p=None)
condenser.set_attr(ttd_u=5)
# internal heat exchanger superheating
c2.set_attr(Td_bp=5, h=None)
# solve the network again
nw.solve("design")
# calculate the COP
cop = abs(
cons_heatsink.Q.val
/ (cons_pump.P.val + heatsource_pump.P.val + compressor.P.val)
)
print(cop)
```

## Expand fix to any working fluids¶

Finally, using this strategy, it is possible to build a generic function, building a network, that works with a variety of working fluids.

##
Click to expand to code section

```
def generate_network_with_starting_values(wf):
# network
nw = Network(
T_unit="C", p_unit="bar", h_unit="kJ / kg", m_unit="kg / s",
iterinfo=False
)
# components
cycle_closer = CycleCloser("Refrigerant Cycle Closer")
# heat source
heatsource_feedflow = Source("Heat Source Feed Flow")
heatsource_pump = Pump("Heat Source Recirculation Pump")
heatsource_evaporator = HeatExchanger("Heat Source Evaporator")
heatsource_backflow = Sink("Heat Source Back Flow")
# compression
compressor = Compressor("Compressor")
# heat sink
cons_pump = Pump("Heat Sink Recirculation Pump")
condenser = Condenser("Heat Sink Condenser")
cons_heatsink = SimpleHeatExchanger("Heat Consumer")
cons_cycle_closer = CycleCloser("Consumer Feed Flow")
# internal heat exchange
int_heatex = HeatExchanger("Internal Heat Exchanger")
# expansion
valve = Valve("Expansion Valve")
# connections
# main cycle
c0 = Connection(cycle_closer, "out1", heatsource_evaporator, "in2", label="0")
c1 = Connection(heatsource_evaporator, "out2", int_heatex, "in2", label="1")
c2 = Connection(int_heatex, "out2", compressor, "in1", label="2")
c3 = Connection(compressor, "out1", condenser, "in1", label="3")
c4 = Connection(condenser, "out1", int_heatex, "in1", label="4")
c5 = Connection(int_heatex, "out1", valve, "in1", label="5")
c6 = Connection(valve, "out1", cycle_closer, "in1", label="6")
nw.add_conns(c0, c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6)
# heat source
c11 = Connection(heatsource_feedflow, "out1", heatsource_pump, "in1", label="11")
c12 = Connection(heatsource_pump, "out1", heatsource_evaporator, "in1", label="12")
c13 = Connection(heatsource_evaporator, "out1", heatsource_backflow, "in1", label="13")
nw.add_conns(c11, c12, c13)
# heat sink
c21 = Connection(cons_cycle_closer, "out1", cons_pump, "in1", label="20")
c22 = Connection(cons_pump, "out1", condenser, "in2", label="21")
c23 = Connection(condenser, "out2", cons_heatsink, "in1", label="22")
c24 = Connection(cons_heatsink, "out1", cons_cycle_closer, "in1", label="23")
nw.add_conns(c21, c22, c23, c24)
# set feedflow and backflow temperature of heat source and consumer
T_hs_bf = 10
T_hs_ff = 15
T_cons_bf = 50
T_cons_ff = 90
# consumer cycle
c23.set_attr(T=T_cons_ff, p=10, fluid={"water": 1})
c24.set_attr(T=T_cons_bf)
# heat source cycle
c11.set_attr(T=T_hs_ff, p=1, fluid={"water": 1})
c13.set_attr(T=T_hs_bf, p=1)
# evaporation to fully saturated gas
c1.set_attr(x=1, fluid={wf: 1})
# parametrization components
# isentropic efficiency
cons_pump.set_attr(eta_s=0.8)
heatsource_pump.set_attr(eta_s=0.8)
compressor.set_attr(eta_s=0.85)
# pressure ratios
condenser.set_attr(pr1=0.98, pr2=0.98)
heatsource_evaporator.set_attr(pr1=0.98, pr2=0.98)
cons_heatsink.set_attr(pr=0.99)
int_heatex.set_attr(pr1=0.98, pr2=0.98)
# evaporation point
p_eva = CP.PropsSI("P", "Q", 1, "T", T_hs_bf - 5 + 273.15, wf) * 1e-5
c1.set_attr(p=p_eva)
# condensation point
p_cond = CP.PropsSI("P", "Q", 0, "T", T_cons_ff + 5 + 273.15, wf) * 1e-5
c4.set_attr(p=p_cond)
# internal heat exchanger to compressor enthalpy
h_evap = CP.PropsSI("H", "Q", 1, "T", T_hs_bf - 5 + 273.15, wf) * 1e-3
c2.set_attr(h=h_evap * 1.01)
# consumer heat demand
cons_heatsink.set_attr(Q=-1e6)
power_bus = Bus("Total power input")
heat_bus = Bus("Total heat production")
power_bus.add_comps(
{"comp": compressor, "base": "bus"},
{"comp": cons_pump, "base": "bus"},
{"comp": heatsource_pump, "base": "bus"},
)
heat_bus.add_comps({"comp": cons_heatsink})
nw.add_busses(power_bus, heat_bus)
nw.solve("design")
# evaporation point
c1.set_attr(p=None)
heatsource_evaporator.set_attr(ttd_l=5)
# condensation point
c4.set_attr(p=None)
condenser.set_attr(ttd_u=5)
# internal heat exchanger superheating
c2.set_attr(Td_bp=5, h=None)
# solve the network again
nw.solve("design")
return nw
```

We can run that function for different working fluids and plot the results:

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import pandas as pd
# make text reasonably sized
plt.rc("font", **{"size": 18})
cop = pd.DataFrame(columns=["COP"])
for wf in ["NH3", "R22", "R134a", "R152a", "R290", "R718"]:
nw = generate_network_with_starting_values(wf)
power = nw.busses["Total power input"].P.val
heat = abs(nw.busses["Total heat production"].P.val)
cop.loc[wf] = heat / power
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, figsize=(16, 8))
cop.plot.bar(ax=ax, legend=False)
ax.set_axisbelow(True)
ax.yaxis.grid(linestyle="dashed")
ax.set_xlabel("Name of working fluid")
ax.set_ylabel("Coefficicent of performance")
plt.tight_layout()
fig.savefig("COP_by_wf.svg")
```